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Subject + V

Yardımcı fiil “do ve does”

He, She, It lerde fiil sonuna “s” takısı gelir yardımcı fiil “does” dır. Does ile başlayan soru cümlelerinde fiildeki “s” takısı kalkar. 

Subject +V2

Yardımcı fiil “did”, soru ve olumsuz cümlelerde kullanılır.

a) Subject + am /is / are + going to + V


b) Subject + will + V + ing

c) Contunious tense


Subject + am / is / are + V + ing

Subject + was / were  + V + ing

“am ve is” yerine “was”kullanılır “are” yerine ise “were” kullanılır.

Subject + will be + V + ing


Subject + have / has + V3

He, She, It lerde “has” kullanılır.

Subject + had + V3

Subject + will have + V3


Subject + have / has  been + V + ing

He, She, It lerde “has” kullanılır.

Subject + had  been + V + ing


Subject + will have been + V + ing


Present Simple

Habits and routines

I drink coffee every morning.

Mary goes to the Library on Sundays.


Past Simple

Completed actions in the past

I finished University in 1984.

Antonio lived Malaysia for five years.


Future Simple

a) Going to (Plans and  intentions)

I am going to start exercising regularly.

Hasan is going to take a  vocation from work.

b) Present continuous (Fixed arrangements) 

I am having lunch with my parents on Saturday

John is giving a presentation to the board of directors on the 10th.

c) Will (Instant decisions, offers, promises)

Instant decisions
I will have the burger and fries combo, please (instant decisions)

These files are really heavy, I will help you (offer)

Thank you for your e mail. We will respond within two business days.



Present Continuous

Actions happening now (at the time of speaking)

I am drinking coffee right now.

It is raining outside.

Temporary activities

I am watching a really interesting TV series at the moment.

My sister is staying with us for a couple of weeks.

Changes taking place now

English lessons on YouTube are becoming very popular these days.

Scientists say that the Earth is getting warmer.


Past Continuous

Unfinished, ongoing action in the past (+finished action)

I was studying at the Library when the fire alarm rang.

While we were waiting at the bus stop, we saw a car accident.


Future Continuous

Ongoing action in the future

At 11.00 a.m tomorrow, I will be driving to Trabzon.

Do you want to come with us to the movies on Saturday evening? I can’t. I will be working until late.

Fixed or routine events

I will be staying at the Hilton hotel in Ankara.

I am staying at the Hilton hotel in Ankara.

I am going to stay at the Hilton hotel in Ankara

I am going to the cafeteria. Do you want me to bring you a coffee? Thanks, but don’t bother. I will be going there in a little while myself.



Present perfect


I have taught English to many students.

Ashley has visited Turkey four times.

Recent actions or events

I have finished my homework.

The police has arrested a young man last nigh in connection with the robbery.


Past Perfect Tense

The first (continuous) past action

I was sick because I had eaten too much the previous night.

The girl looked very familiar. I had seen her somewhere before.


Future Perfect

Completed action in the future

By August, Hasan will have saved 6000 TL

By 5  p.m , we will have painted the living room.



Present Perfect Continuous

Action that started in the past and  are still continuing

I have been living in this town for a very long time / since 1990

It has been raining all morning / for 3 hours


Past Perfect Continuous

The first (continuous) past action

I felt realy tired because I had been driving all day

When he quit his job at the factory, he had been working there for 12 years


Future Perfect Continuous

Ongoing action in the future (with duration)

By August, Hasan will have been saving money

By 5 p.m., we will have been painting


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